随着2016年美国总统大选的结束以及“后真相时代”的兴起，是时候围绕教育领域创新开展一番讨论了。 教育领域面临的最大挑战是什么，又有哪些解决方案正在路上？ 谁来负责重塑有缺陷的教育制度？ 虽然教育制度的相关问题来自多个维度，但有件事情我们是能够确信的：要想改变社会，就得从教育后代开始做起，而这正是现在所发生的事情。
数字化 在教育领域，“大规模开放式在线课程”（MOOCs）的兴起是一大热门话题。 数字时代为信息访问带来了前所未有的便利度。所有年龄段的学生都能获得比以往任何时候更多的信息，还能获得世界上最优质的教育资源（只要那些最优秀的教育者愿意在网上发布他们的课程）。
Khan Academy, EdX和 Coursera都是正在快速扩张的教育组织，在优质教育内容的支持下，它们在新兴市场大举竞争，但其营收却不是非常稳定。 这些组织所集合了来自不同背景的顶级教师及教授，为学生提供教学大纲、家庭作业、学习聊天组，以及即时视频讨论。
学生不必按照固定的时间表完成课程。 如果学生发现自己晚上的学习效率更好，那么他们都能这样做。 如果学生需要重复学习的话，他们能以10秒为单位随意回滚视频，直到完全理解老师说了什么说。 这种学习模式也带来了缺点，过多的灵活性让学生很难获得激励去完成学习任务。 更重要的是，在学习过程中，触觉对于激励心智发展来说几乎是不可替代的。
国际化 最迷人的教育改革运动往往不在传统组织中发生。 在高等教育方面，凯基的Minerva学校引发了一场教育风暴，今年一年内获得了超过16,000份入学申请，而该学校拥有306个教学点。
每年，Minerva学校的学生都会前往一个新的国家，在世界各地不同的城市背景下完成他们的本科课程：伊斯坦布尔，伦敦，旧金山，柏林，首尔，班加罗尔。 大学教育的“去中心化”直到最近才得以实现。 而“间隔年”则是另一个快速增长的教育创新空间。 摆脱了K-12或高等教育体系的限制，学生们能够利用“间隔年”的时间来重塑自己的生活，探索能够真正激励、挑战并鼓舞他们的事情。
圣地亚哥的“高科技高”计划开设了一家基于抽签制度的公立特许学校， 该学校99％的毕业生都能进入大学。 作为一个几乎没有教科书的学校，他们强调教育的个性化，多样性，协作性，以及对于工作期望（甚至是成年人级别的期望值）。这些特色对他们的K-12学生产生了深远影响。
“高峰公立学校”拥有先进的软硬件，在社会及情感学习的框架内为其学生开发高度个性化的学习计划。 在高科技的帮助下，学校能够辨别出学生的学习在什么时候会落后，学生什么时候会需要老师的帮助，应该如何（以及何时）寻求更多的高质量教育信息。 很明显，这种技能与21世纪的工作需求联系日益紧密。
Mark Esposito, 剑桥大学商法学院研究员。
作者：Elena Holodny是Business Insider网站作家。
What does the future of work look like for Gen Y?
When the Brexit referendum result came in, many celebrated, while millions despaired. The disappointed supporters of British membership of the European Union tended to be younger and better educated.
Many young people felt let down by older Brexit voters. After all, they are the ones who will have to forge careers in less certain circumstances.
Among 18 to 24-year-olds, 72% favoured continued membership of the EU. As one young Briton explained via Twitter: “Today an older generation has voted to ruin the future for the younger generation. I’m scared.” Another millennial complained: “The fact older generations have reaped the benefits & pulled the EU from my generation? Furious.”
With or without a “hard” Brexit, millennials or Gen Y – those born between 1980 and 1995 – are deeply concerned about their futures, all over the world. Whether it’s housing shortages, job prospects or general political insecurity, Gen Y is worried. This has to be of concern for everyone.
Gen Y will soon become the largest living generation and will comprise 75% of the workforce by 2025. The median age of employees of Google, Alibaba, and Tesla is 30 or below. They have a mix of interests and challenges, unprecedented new skills, different insights, and often a flair for entrepreneurship.
Take Rajeeb Dey, for example, named as a Young Global Leader by the World Economic Forum. Rajeeb wanted to make a difference to the opportunities of other young people and became an entrepreneur aged 17, while still at school. Rajeeb, like all Gen Y-ers, is one of the first generation of digital natives. Many are well educated, well travelled, digitally literate, ambitious and impatient to pursue activities that interest them.
They embrace casual work environments, co-working spaces, flexible working hours, online learning and flat company hierarchies. Their career values and use of technology is beginning to determine what the future of work might look like.
But this is not a simple tale of technological progress and utopian views of employment. Other Gen Y-ers are fearful of the future: half of young Spaniards are unemployed. They live in challenging economic circumstances, where automation and artificial intelligence threaten the future of jobs.
Gen Y’s attitudes towards work were shaped by the global financial crisis, which occurred while they were in high school, university or at the beginning of their career. They watched opportunities for graduate careers shrink and many saw their student debts rise sharply at the same time.
These challenges, and the realization that they will struggle in housing markets, are all the greater as they spent their childhoods during an economic boom. The conventional financial and career limitations they face sit alongside the way their parents raised them to “reach for the stars” and “do what makes you happy”. Rajeeb Dey formed his start-up, Enternships.com, in the depths of the recession.
Many Gen Y-ers are not too concerned about the impact of technology on their work – but they should be. While they are largely fluent in using technology, many are ignorant as to how it works, especially compared to Gen Z, the generation below, who learn digital skills, such as coding and programming, from primary school age. This suggests that Gen Y could be left behind by the next generation of digital technology.
Despite recent rapid changes, younger workers are slightly more likely than older workers to expect that their current jobs will exist 50 years in the future: 84% of workers aged 18 to 29 expect that this will be the case, compared with 76% of workers aged 50 and older. While Gen Y is aware of the challenges of technologies such as automation and artificial intelligence (AI), and confident they can live and work alongside them, it is up to them to create the jobs that allow them to do so. It is also up to them to be active learners and continue to improve their skills so that they do not get left behind.
Evidence that Gen Y is conscious of this is their keen use of online education providers such as Coursera, EdX and Udacity, which offer short, industry-specific courses on the use of new technologies. Udacity – university by industry – is an online provider of nanodegrees, supported by Google, Facebook, GitHub, IBM and other tech giants. It offers courses for self-driving car engineers, iOS developers, and machine learning engineers. Another provider, General Assembly, promotes itself as “the solution to the skills gap”, teaching courses in fields such as coding, UX design and digital marketing. Lynda.com offers more than 4,000 online courses in business, technology and creative skills. But the question remains as to whether learning to code, to work in companies like Salesforce is going to lead to a fulfilling career? Or is coding “the next blue collar job”?
Accessing these courses can be valuable, but there’s a risk that young people will favour them and skip traditional tertiary education, such as going to university. This risks them missing out on developing soft skills, learning the politics, history and cultural components behind their topics, and entering the workforce unprepared to deal with its complexities and uncertainties. They may learn about some of the technical issues of the day, but not how to thrive in the complex and confusing world of tomorrow. Gen Y needs to see these courses as supplementary and not as sufficient in themselves.
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With some justification, Gen Y complains government legislation favours older generations in areas such as tax allowances for pensions. Labour laws make it harder to lay off current employees who may be poor performers, which means there are fewer jobs available for young qualified graduates. At the same time, many Gen Y-ers have a strong sense of entitlement and expect to receive appreciation for their contributions. They demand flexibility with their work and lifestyle and change jobs far more often than older generations. This is sometimes seen as being flighty or unreliable.
Matching these high expectations in such unfavourable circumstances requires Gen Y to create its own future. But to achieve its goals, this generation needs to be more involved politically. In the 2012 US Presidential election, 46% of Gen Y voted as opposed to 61% of Gen X-ers, and 69% of Baby Boomers. The expectations of Gen Y-ers have to be matched by their taking more responsibility: they shouldn’t complain about political outcomes they did not involve themselves in.
As technology encroaches further into working lives, Gen Y-ers – the future of the workplace – must ensure they remain necessary and relevant. If they want to continue pursuing their progressive career values they must continue to improve their skills in order to work alongside automation and AI, rather than be made redundant by it. Gen Y needs to rise to the technological, political and social challenges that confront us all and get more involved in shaping the future of work.
Special thanks to Kate Dodgson, a Gen Y-er, who helped research this article.
Mark Dodgson, Director, Technology and Innovation Management Centre, University of Queensland Business School
David Gann, Vice President, Imperial College
LONDON (Thomson Reuters Foundation) – As the world grapples with potentially catastrophic global problems, including climate change, it needs to find solutions by overcoming short-term thinking, risk analysts say.
To drive that, a Swedish risk specialist and philanthropist is offering a $5 million prize for the best idea to create a new international decision-making system capable of tackling the world’s intractable issues, from extreme poverty to the spread of nuclear weapons and growing environmental damage.
“Today’s risks are so dangerous and so global in their nature that they’ve outrun the international system’s ability to deal with them,” said László Szombatfalvy, who fled from Hungary to Sweden in 1956 as a refugee, and later made a fortune in the stock market.
“We’re trying to solve today’s problems with yesterday’s tools,” said the 89-year-old, who launched the Global Challenges Foundation in 2012. “We believe a new shape of collaboration is needed to address the most critical challenges in our globalized world.”
The New Shape Prize – which will be awarded next November, after entries close in May – aims to spur fresh thinking about innovative means to solve problems that cross borders and are hard to tackle when most political terms of office are short and many businesses and markets remain focused on near-term gains.
“The public and even the private sector are underestimating the risks because we are too short-sighted in our decision-making,” said Mats Andersson, a former CEO of Sweden’s largest pension fund and now head of Szombatfalvy’s foundation.
He points to continued government spending on fossil fuel subsidies, for instance, while many leaders resist efforts to put in place a carbon price and trading system that would drive richer countries to pay for their climate-changing emissions while giving poorer ones funds to develop cleanly.
Such a shift could help drive action against global warming. Instead, “we’re sending the bill to our kids and grandkids, and I think that’s deeply immoral”, said Andersson, who has worked on de-carbonizing pension funds.
A U.N.-brokered deal to tackle climate change, agreed by more than 190 countries in Paris last year, aims to limit global temperature rise to “well below” 2 degrees Celsius, by getting countries to deliver voluntary emissions reductions and financial contributions that could be ratcheted up over time.
But their pledges for the accord still leave the world on a path to at least 2.9 degrees Celsius of warming above pre-industrial times – enough to swamp many low-lying island states, kill most coral reefs, drive food shortages and far more extreme weather, and potentially trigger melting of the biggest ice sheets, scientists say.
When it comes to solving global problems, “we have the United Nations, but the United Nations was founded in 1946, with the challenges we had at that time. We’re now some years down the road. We need to remodel and find new ways,” Andersson said.
The prize, he said, is not aimed at finding whole solutions to global threats such as climate change, wars and poverty, but rather “a model or mechanism that could provide the solutions”.
“We don’t have any preconceived views,” Andersson said. “We need to look in every corner, turn every stone.”
TOO LATE FOR CLIMATE CHANGE?
Rob Bailey, who directs energy, environment and resources research at London-based think tank Chatham House, said it is likely too late to craft an innovative new framework to limit climate change.
“Even if the politics for grand plans was possible, which we know is not the case at the moment, there isn’t enough time for grand plans anyway,” he said. Within two years, existing power plants will lock the world into more than 2 degrees of global warming if used over their full lifetime, he added.
But fresh approaches could help police and make more effective the Paris climate agreement’s voluntary goals, and verify what is being done by businesses, cities and other major players to curb climate-changing emissions, he said.
They could also offer new ways of dealing with the global problems climate change is set to worsen, from food shortages to migration, he said.
“What kind of global and international institutions will we need to have for a stable and resilient international order?” Bailey asked. “It raises questions for our food system, our humanitarian system, for international laws on refugees and asylum, (and) for social protection mechanisms.”
“These are the things we can be thinking about grand designs for, before things get really hairy from 2030 onward,” he said.
Entries for the New Shape Prize close on May 24, 2017, and the winning idea will be chosen by a panel of academic experts and a high-level international jury.
The Global Challenges Foundation will then back efforts to put that idea into practice, Andersson said.
(Reporting by Laurie Goering editing by Megan Rowling)
首先，联合国应该借鉴László Szombatfalvy 并成为舒适的众包解决方案。克服代理问题的办法是减少代理。联合国，世界银行，和其他类似机构应该利用“绩效工资”的方法论。创业企业提供的解决方案是否可靠是不可知的，直到解决了这个问题。
Thirty years ago, it was a big deal when schools got their first computers. Today, it’s a big deal when students get their own laptops.
According to futurist Thomas Frey, in 14 years it’ll be a big deal when students learn from robot teachers over the internet.
It’s not just because the technology will be that sophisticated, Frey says, but because the company responsible for it will be the largest of its kind.
“I’ve been predicting that by 2030 the largest company on the internet is going to be an education-based company that we haven’t heard of yet,” Frey, the senior futurist at the DaVinci Institute think tank, tells Business Insider.
Frey’s prediction comes amid a boom in artificial intelligence research. Google is developing DeepMind, a complex piece of machine-learning software. IBM is developing Watson-powered robots. Amazon is developing drone delivery.
“Nobody has quite cracked the code for the future of education,” Frey contends.
His vision for 2030 includes a massively enhanced version of today’s open online courses — the kind of instruction you may find with Khan Academy, Coursera, or MIT OpenCourseWare. Only, the instructors won’t be humans beamed through videos. They’ll be bots, and they’ll be smart enough to personalize each lesson plan to the child sitting in front of the screen.
Frey suspects that kind of efficiency will allow students to learn at much faster rates than if they had to compete with 19 other students for the teacher’s attention. Students will breeze through their material at four or 10 times the speed, perhaps completing an undergraduate education in less than half a year.
“It learns what your proclivities are, it learns what your idiosyncrasies are,” he explains. “It learns what your interests are, your reference points. And it figures out how to teach you in a faster and faster way over time.”
He uses the example of Google’s DeepMind learning to play the Atari video game “Breakout.” Not only did it quickly pick up on the rules, but within a half hour it figured out a way to achieve incredibly high scores — all with little human input.
Machine learning will accelerate in a similar fashion in the education space, Frey says. Online bots will pick up on a student’s strengths and weaknesses and use a series of algorithms to tailor the lessons accordingly. Research suggests this personalized method is among the most effective at raising kids’ overall achievement.
Frey doesn’t go so far as to argue education bots will replace traditional schooling outright. He sees them more as a supplement, perhaps as a kind of tutor. If a child struggles with algebra, a bot may be able to offer some help during homework time or over the weekend.
It’s up for debate whether AI can master the subtleties of language, thought, and reason all within the next 14 years. One of the greatest hurdles for machine learning is grasping social interactions. Many AI systems today are still less capable (cognitively speaking) than a 6-year-old.
Frey trusts 14 years isn’t too generous a timeline for the technology to ramp up, given how quickly technology innovation builds on itself. The internet was just beginning to enter a lot of people’s homes 14 years ago, in 2002. But by 2007 people were already surfing the Web on their iPhones, and today the internet is almost omnipresent in daily life.
Frey predicts that artificial intelligence will have the same trajectory in the education space. By 2030, DeepMind’s ability to master “Breakout” could seem as quaint as dial-up modems do today, and what seemed like a massive library of online content in 2016 could look to future students like a skimpy collection that hardly does anything.